The AQUA|STILL process uses basically waste heat and a water source. The process recreates the natural hydrological cycle within a controlled environment. The general technique is called membrane distillation.
Membrane distillation uses hydrophobic membranes to separate pure distillate water from warm water. Water vapour is transported through the membrane due to a pressure difference caused by the difference in temperature. Because the AQUA|STILL module houses a range of evaporation stages as part of an almost ideal counter-current flow process, a very high recovery of evaporation heat is possible. Because the process uses hydrophobic membranes, only water vapour can pass through the membrane. The temperature difference on the two sides of the membrane causes water vapour to diffuse from the hot side of the membrane to the colder side of the membrane. This process of evaporation and condensation cools the hot side and heats the colder side. Using counter-current flows minimizes energy consumption. The process works at low pressures (as low as 1.0 bar).
Membrane distillation is the most efficient one-step separation method
Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD)
Direct Contact Membrane Distillation is the most straightforward form of membrane distillation, consisting of the membrane modules and the respective heat exchangers.
Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD)
Air Gap Membrane Distillation is the most energy-efficient of our process configurations. This makes it ideal for solar/green energy applications without limiting the module’s output capabilities. AQUA|STILL currently has the single largest AGMD modules in the world, at over 24 m2 meters and with measured performance ratios surpassing 10.
Liquid Gap Membrane Distillation (LGMD)
Liquid Gap Membrane Distillation (LGMD) is one of the more recently developed process configurations, providing extremely pure water at a lower yield compared to AGMD.